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The Land of Ancient Egypt played a role in the cosmology that developed there. Just as they divided things into natural and supernatural, air and water, so too was Egypt divided into Lower and Upper. Pharaohs strove to be good masters of both Upper and Lower Egypt with varying degrees of success- some ruled only one, others both for a time.
This timeline shows some of the major periods in Ancient Egyptian history. The periods are defined roughly by the dynasties that ran Egypt during similar states. For example, the New Kingdom period is predominated by dynasties that were govered by pharaohs who were war oriented and sought to establish rule through the military.
It's also interesting to note that the pyramids were constructed several thousand years before the Greco-Roman period, or the birth of Christ. We consider that time period to be extremely old and yet at that time they probably considered the pyramids to have been extremely old and constructed in ancient times.
The Central Portion of the Circular Zodiac of Denderah
The Zodiac below is an example of those found inscribed on the walls of pyramids. Astronomers were able to find out much more about ancient Egyptians than liguists or philologists at first, largely because the language in question was one of science. These early archaeoastronomical discoveries filled in many gaps about the early development of science. Because the Egpytians made known astronomical observances that could be determined by scientists in our own time, their language and culture became increasingly understandable to researchers. 
Many of the constellations represented stand for both mythical characters and real life people in Egyptian history. Often, the two became meshed into a sort of legendary tale.
The Land, History, and Science of Ancient Egypt
Maps of Lower and Upper Egypt
Chronology of Egypt

Period Approximate

Dates BCE Dynasty Important Pharaohs Culture and Society

Archaic 3100-2686 1-2 Menes, Narmer Development of calendar and writing, first known treatise on surgery, building in stone

Old Kingdom 2686-2181 3-6 Djoser, Sneferu, Cheops, Chephren, Pepy I and II Pyramids built, Rise in importance of Heliopolis and Re, Pyramid texts 

1st Intermediate 2181-1991 7-11 Achthoes, Mentuhotep Political turmoil, pyramids ransacked; tombs and statues destroyed 

Middle Kingdom 1991-1786 12 Amennemnes I-III, Sesotris I-III Restoration of order; cultural splendor, Amon gains prominence.

2nd Intermediate 1786-1567 13-17 Apophis, Kamose Hyksos kings seize power. Introduction of chariots, decline of artistic standards & ideas

New Kingdom 1567-1085 18-20 Tuthmosis I-IV, Hatshepsut, Akhenaten, Tutahkhamun, Horemheb, Ramses I-III Removal of Hyksos, Egyptian empire; failure of Akhenaten; "Book of the Dead" written

Late 1085-525 21-26 Psammetichus I and II, Amasis Libyan, Nubian and Assyrian kings, invasion of Palestine; imitation of past arts.

1st Persian 525-404 27 Darius I, Xerxes, Artaxerxes Persia conquers Egypt; canal from Nile to Red Sea built; codification of Egyptian law

Late 404-343 28-30 Amyrteos, Nectanebo I and II Persians expelled with Greek aid, monuments erected by Pharaoh Achoris

2nd Persian 343-332 31 Artaxerxes III, Arses, Darius III Egypt re-conquered by Persia, last reflowering of native Egyptian art. 

CONQUEST BY ALEXANDER THE GREAT, 332 BCE

Ptolemaic 332-30 Ptolemies Ptolemy I, Soter I, Cleopatra After his death, Alexander the Great's general founds dynasty; numerous temples built. 

Another Chronology of Egypt by Dynasties

Neolithic Period, ca. 5450-3850 B.C.

Predynastic Period, ca. 4500-3100 B.C.
Badarian, ca. 4500-3800 B.C.
Naqada I, ca. 3850-3650 B.C.
Naqada II, ca. 3650-3300 B.C.
Naqada III, ca. 3300-3100 B.C.

Early Dynastic Period, ca. 3100-2750 B.C.
Dynasty I, ca. 3100-2900 B.C.
Dynasty II, ca. 2900-2750 B.C.

Old Kingdom, ca. 2750-2250 B.C.
Dynasty III, ca. 2750-2675 B.C.
Dynasty IV, ca. 2675-2565 B.C.
Dynasty V, ca. 2565-2423 B.C.
Dynasty VI, ca. 2423-2250 B.C.

First Intermediate Period, ca. 2250-2025 B.C.
Dynasty VIII, ca. 2250-2213 B.C.
Dynasty IX-X, ca. 2213-2025 B.C.
Dynasty XI, ca. 2122-2025 B.C.

Middle Kingdom, ca. 2025-1627/1606 B.C.
Dynasty XI, ca. 2025-1979 B.C.
Dynasty XII, ca. 1979-1801 B.C.
Dynasty XIII, ca. 1801-1627/1606 B.C.

Second Intermediate Period, ca. 1648-1539 B.C.
Dynasty XV, ca. 1648-1540 B.C.
Dynasty XVII, ca. 1627/1606-1539 B.C.

New Kingdom, ca. 1539-1070 B.C.
Dynasty XVIII, ca. 1539-1295 B.C.
Dynasty XIX, ca. 1295-1185 B.C.
Dynasty XX, ca. 1185-1070 B.C.

Third Intermediate Period, ca. 1070-653 B.C.
Dynasty XXI, ca. 1070-945 B.C.
Dynasty XXII, ca. 945-718 B.C.
Dynasty XXIII, ca. 820-718 B.C.
Dynasty XXIV, ca. 730-712 B.C.
Dynasty XXV, ca. 775-653 B.C.

Late Period, ca. 664-332 B.C.
Dynasty XXVI, ca. 664-525 B.C.
Dynasty XXVII, ca. 525-404/401 B.C.
Dynasty XXIX, ca. 399-380 B.C.
Dynasty XXX, ca. 380-342 B.C.
Dynasty XXXI, ca. 342-332 B.C.

Ptolemaic Period, ca. 332-30 B.C.
Macedonian Dynasty, ca. 332-305 B.C.
Ptolemaic Dynasty, ca. 310/305-30 B.C.

Roman Period, ca. 30 B.C.-A.D. 395

Star chart of Scorpius
Star Chart of Taurus